Margot Forde Germplasm Centre
The Margot Forde Germplasm Centre is New Zealand’s national gene bank of grassland plants and hosts the New Zealand Endangered Species Seedbank.
Plant germplasm consists of seeds of genetically diverse plant populations that are conserved for use in plant breeding and to ensure the survival of groups of plants.
The role of the centre is to obtain, conserve, replenish and distribute germplasm for research and development of new varieties.
Collections provide the foundation for pasture, turf and soil conservation plant breeding and research in New Zealand, as well as the conservation of national endangered species. Collections play an important role in international plant conservation.
The grassland collections are very important because New Zealand’s export economy is based predominantly on pasture, and almost all pasture plants are native to other countries. Pasture species must be changed as problems arise, e.g. new pests, climate warming, etc. The Germplasm Centre provides a biological economy with insurance against future problems arising from environmental changes.
Plant introduction and germplasm collection are important parts of the work of the Centre. In recent years, collecting expeditions have been sent to areas of special relevance to New Zealand.
The centre holds seeds from about 100 countries representing 2,000 species from 350 genera and over 70 plant families. Included are extensive wild collections of useful species, samples of foreign and domestic cultivars, breeders lines and genetic stocks.
The collection includes over 90,000 seed samples stored at 0°C and 30% relative humidity (RH) to prolong viability. Under these conditions, grass seeds will live for 20-30 years and legumes 20-50 years. Seed stocks are replenished using specialised facilities.
Lower temperatures (-20°C) are used for longer-term storage, and this requires very dry seed. The Centre has a drying room which allows seeds to be dried to low moisture contents before storage.
A database is maintained of all seed holdings and samples issued. The public part of this database is available on the Internet. Seeds from this part of the collection are freely available to bona fide researchers world-wide. Associated research includes DNA analysis to maximise the conservation of genetic diversity and to identify useful wild species that can be crossed with economic species.
Endangered Species Seedbank
The centre hosts the New Zealand Indigenous Flora Seedbank on behalf of the NZ Plant Conservation Network. This is a collection of seeds of populations of native species that are endangered in the wild. By storing seeds, these populations can be conserved for long periods and the seeds provide insurance against future loss in their native habitats.